How to Learn in the 21st Century

At this time (the 21st century), “memory and learning” research has reached at a level we can utilize for improving how we actually learn. This research field has developed certain specific strategies that enable us to create our own “specific tactical plan.
Continue reading


Memory Palace Technique, a Tool for Memory Athletes

The memory palace is a very ancient technique, which dates from the ancient Greeks and Latins. Orators in the Roman Senate used this technique to remember the concepts they had to develop in public. To be effective, this technique requires that the places in the palace be always the same and always in the same order. Continue reading

How to Learn More by Studying Less?

Being intelligent within … (a) subject is often a factor (of) just how much exposure you have had to it. – Scott Young, a “Marco Polo” of Learning.

To learn more in less time, it only depends on motivating yourself. But, in the first place, Why do we fail to motivate ourselves?
This is because majority of learners use low-efficient study methods when they want to learn more; and this takes more of their time. In turn, this more-time-requirement leads to a tendency of preference for “ineffective study methods”.

Therefore, what do we have to do to motivate ourselves? Continue reading

How to Write Warrants in Research Arguments?

An example of argument based on reason: We are facing significantly higher health care costs in Europe and North America claim, because global warming is moving the line of extended hard freezes steadily northward. reason

An example of a general principle that justifies relating your particular reason to your particular claim: When an area has fewer hard freezes, it must pay more to combat new diseases carried by subtropical insects no longer killed by those freezes.

Like all warrants, this one says that if a general circumstance exists (an area has fewer hard freezes), then we can infer a general consequence (that area will have higher costs to combat new diseases).
Continue reading

How to Handle Missing Data in SPSS?


Missing or invalid data are generally too common to ignore. Survey respondents may refuse to answer certain questions, may not know the answer, or may answer in an unexpected format.

If you don’t filter or identify these data, your analysis may not provide accurate results.

For numeric data, empty data fields or fields containing invalid entries are converted to system-missing, which is identifiable by a single period (shown in fig. below).

Continue reading